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The Use of Titanium in the Spacecraft Was Effective in Reduction of the Imposing Loads

The Use of Titanium in the Spacecraft Was Effective in Reduction of the Imposing Loads

Weight optimization is considered as one of the critical challenges in designing and engineering of spacecraft components. However, the weight cannot be reduced at the cost of decreasing the strength or efficiency of the components of interest. Material manufacturers / engineers have found a unique idea with regard to the use of titanium and its alloys in the aerospace field to carry loads in structures such as spacecraft.

Titanium nuts are manufactured based on optimum design via 3D printing with the initial weight and improved properties. These nuts can be utilized as installation base to connect devices to spacecraft and satellites. These titanium nuts are very suitable for heavy loads and lifting a solid and heavy structure. In other words, these nuts demonstrate a high strength-to-weight ratio. Additionally, these nuts are components with high rigidity and special strength that have minimum weight. This weight reduction provides the possibility of adding more audio equipment in the satellite, and thus, significant savings are obtained in the costs of each satellite launch.

Titanium and its alloys have led to not only solving the problem of thermoelastic stress but also to reducing weight of components in spacecraft design. Since titanium nuts are installed with carbon fiber during the processing of reinforced polymers, they concentrate thermoelastic stresses.

The titanium characteristics have made this material a useful element in aerospace and aviation field.


The use of titanium and its alloys in aerospace programs is a novel development in material science. Probably there is no other available material that is more suitable for aerospace applications than titanium and its alloys. The reason behind this fact is that the density of titanium is 4.5 g/cm3 with a weight of almost half that of Ni-based alloys or steel. Thus, with this unique property, titanium will have the best strength-to-weight ratio.

Temperature resistance

Titanium and its alloys will be prominently utilized in the aerospace industry, including in engine, airframe, helicopter and space applications. Titanium and Ti-alloys are usually employed for their mechanical properties, suitable temperature resistance or chemical resistance.

Resistance to corrosion

Titanium has remarkable properties regarding resistance to corrosion. This particular property makes titanium an ideal option for the aerospace industry. Typical Ti-alloys are also utilized for primary and secondary structures, connectors, piping systems, and areas where aluminum alloys cannot be used due to high operating temperatures

The characteristics of titanium and its alloys have made these materials suitable options for the aerospace industry.

The characteristics of titanium and its alloys are classified on the basis of their metallurgical structure, that is influenced by heat treatment and chemical composition.

Pure titanium commercial products are selected for their proper chemical resistance. Titanium impurities increase the strength of titanium, but reduce its resistance to corrosion. Ti-alloys are ideal for contact with CFRP due to their low CTE and consistent galvanic corrosion characteristics.

Titanium alloys are chosen because of their remarkable strength properties, which depend on several heat treatments such as accelerated cooling, age hardening and annealing. Ti6Al4V is a titanium alloy that is widely utilized due to its extensive mechanical properties and resistance to corrosion.

All classical forming and shaping processes can be employed to produce shaped products through rolling, forging, extrusion and casting. Due to high tendency of titanium to combine with oxygen and other gases, the casting and melting processes are carried out under vacuum conditions to avoid harmful effects and affected useful properties.

Some limitations of the application of titanium and its alloys

  • Titanium alloys should not be used with partial oxygen pressures.
  • Titanium alloys should not be machined during flight or ground processes in spacecraft because this operation may cause sparks and fire.
  • Titanium alloys may be vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement and are unsuitable for hydrogenated atmospheres.

In optimized designs with titanium, vulnerability to stress is reduced and load distribution is improved, and these conditions lead to the increased useful life in aerospace industries. With the successful research works being conducted, manufacturers are looking forward to increasing the use of metal components in aerospace and aviation field.